Most of the reactions in living organisms are catalyzed by protein molecules called enzymes. Enzymes can rightly be called the catalytic machinery of living systems.
The first commercial bacterial Bacillus protease was promoted in 1959 and significant detergent manufactures started to use it around 1965.
The industrial enzyme producers sell enzymes for a wide variety of applications. The estimated price of world market is presently about US$ 2 billion. Detergents (37%), textiles (12%), starch (11%), baking (8%) and animal feed (6 percent) are the main industries, which use about 75 percent of industrially produced enzymes. Buy bromelain enzymes feed at best price through http://www.kmuch.com/.
Presently more than 3000 different enzymes have been isolated and categorized.
1. Oxidoreductases catalyze oxidation or reduction of their substrates.
2. Transferases catalyze group move.
3. Hydrolases catalyze bond breakage with the addition of water.
4. Lyases remove groups from their substrates.
Ligases catalyze the joining of two molecules at the cost of chemical energy.
Only a limited number of all the known enzymes are commercially available . More than 75 % of industrial enzymes are hydrolases. Protein-degrading enzymes constitute about 40 % of all enzyme sales. More than fifty commercial industrial enzymes are available and their number is increasing steadily.
Some enzymes still extracted from animal and plant tissues. Most of the enzymes are produced by microorganisms in submerged cultures in large reactors called fermentors. Except this, if you want to know more about organic animal feed visit http://www.kmuch.com/.
1. Choice of an enzyme.
2. Selection of production strain.
3. Building of an overproducing blot by genetic engineering.
4. Optimization of culture medium and production requirement.
5. Optimization of recovery procedure.
Criteria used in the choice of an industrial enzyme include specificity, reaction rate, pH and temperature optima and stability, effect of inhibitors and affinity to substrates. Enzymes used in the industrial applications must usually tolerant against various heavy metals and have no requirement for cofactors.